Electric cars, The automotive world continues to
experience rapid progress and development from year to year.
We can observe various significant
improvements in existing vehicles.
Ranging from accessories, vehicle
equipment, security systems to very modern used machines.
This is inseparable from the rapid
development of technology that supports the development of modern car updates
and modifications today.
Talking about modern cars, there is one
type of car that is being talked about a lot lately.
This type of car is none other than an
electric car or what is often called an electric car (EV).
This is marked by the emergence of various
electric cars in many countries.
Countries around the world are also
grappling with the issue of switching from traditional cars to electric cars.
Of course, Indonesia has also made great
strides in the campaign for the introduction of electric cars.
However, did you know that this is not the
first time that electric cars have been seen around the world? In fact, the
movement to introduce electric cars dates back to the 18th century, and the
inventor of the first electric car was not the Elon Musk we know today.
How did the electric car appear? How
electric cars can be created and developed?
Do you understand what an electric car is?
Interestingly, the electric car was not
yesterday afternoon’s invention. If Carmudian searches for “first electric car”
on Google search engine, Robert Anderson’s name will come up.
He is credited with creating the first
electric car in 1832-1839. At that time, several inventors also conducted
experiments to produce electric cars.
Meanwhile, the millennial generation or
Gen-Z may be more familiar with the name Elon Musk as the founder of the Tesla
electric car brand.
The Tesla Roadster is the first model
marketed by the brand in the United States (US) in 2008. The world’s first
If you think that electric cars are the
latest invention of this century and you also think that Elon Musk was the
first to invent electric cars, rest assured that you are wrong. Electric cars
have made great strides thanks to Elon Musk, but he is not the first inventor
of electric cars. Electric cars have been around since the 19th and early 20th
centuries and are growing in popularity.
According to Caranddriver.com, the concept of an
electric car dates back to the 18th century, when it was developed by several
researchers and inventors from Hungary, the Netherlands and the United States.
They began to focus on the concept of a battery electric car and developed
several small-scale electric cars. The first electric cars were designed for
children and were produced by Bugatti and The
Little Car Company. In 1832, an Englishman
named Robert Anderson developed a three-wheeled car powered by an electric
battery. Anderson is considered the inventor of the world’s first electric car.
Then, in America at the end of the 18th century, a pharmacist named William
Morrison managed to introduce his electric car in 1890. His electric car could
accommodate up to six passengers and had a speed of 22 km/hour (mph). In 1898
it was Ferdinand Porsche’s turn and at the same time he developed an electric
car named P1. Fernando created the world’s first hybrid car that can run on
electricity and gasoline.
The decline in the popularity of electric
Electric cars, not always popular and
successful, faltered and slowly disappeared in the early 20th century. This was
due to the advent of the Ford Model T in 1908, a car that cost far less than an
electric car. In addition, the Ford Model T has a longer range than electric
cars. At that time, electric cars had problems with battery charging time and
the number of chargers or battery slots.
Expanding highways and lower heating oil
prices have been strong factors behind the decline of electric cars.
The emergence of the electric car and its
Electric cars have lost popularity and presence
for more than 40 years, now electric cars are making a comeback in several
countries, even Indonesia. The pioneer of the revival of electric cars is the
company General Motors (GM), which is developing electric cars. In 1988 GM
presented its first electric car prototype at an environmental symposium.
General Motors led by Roger Smith in collaboration with AeroVironment
California succeeded in producing an electric car called EV1 whose production
began in 1996-1999. With the development and progress of electric cars on the
European continent, the Japanese car manufacturer Toyota also did not want to
be left behind and presented its first hybrid car, the Toyota Prius. Up to
18,000 units of production cars can be sold.
Until now, the Prius has been used
as a commercial vehicle by several taxi companies in several countries. Then,
in 2009, the US Department of Energy lent $8 billion to Ford, Nissan, and Tesla
Motors to finance the development of green vehicles. Then Nissan launched its
electric car called LEAF, which can go up to 114 km/hour. As a result, electric
cars are increasingly moving around the world.
By 2020, news about electric cars will be
very lively in various parts of the world. Since then, various brands and types
of electric cars have continued to be mass-produced in various automotive
The maturity of various features of modern cars and electric
motorbikes is starting to attract the attention of the public and even
governments and investors from various countries investing in electric cars.
The prospects for electric cars are quite bright because they are ecological
vehicles and comply with the policies of the governments of various countries,
including Indonesia, which promotes the “green” movement and
introduces ecological vehicles. Currently there are various types of electric
cars, both hybrid electric cars, plug-in electric cars and battery electric
cars from various brands.
Electric car components
Conventional cars need an internal
combustion engine to convert heat energy into mechanical energy, but electric
cars don’t. The mechanical energy is obtained from the motor, which receives
power from the battery as it runs through the inverter.
The main components of an electric car are
• Battery pack:
The function of this component is to store
electrical energy using direct current (DC). Batteries are the most expensive
electric car component. This component also has the highest weight among other
This component converts direct current from
the battery into alternating current (AC) before being supplied to the electric
motor. Inverters are also capable of converting AC power to DC power. This
capacity is needed to support the regenerative braking function. •
Electric motor components produce
mechanical energy which is useful for driving electric cars. An electric motor
is shaped like a dynamo and consists of several parts, including a coil,
stator, rotor, and a bipolar magnet.
• Additional battery:
This component is also often called the battery.
Electric cars still need batteries, even though they already have very large
batteries. Batteries are required to operate vehicle equipment.
• Charge port:
This component Connects the car to an
external power source that charges the battery.
• Heating system management:
This component is responsible for
preventing the electric motor and battery from overheating while driving.
Electric cars also have gearboxes. Its job
is to direct the kinetic energy generated by the electric motor to the wheels.
The component specifications above may
differ for each EV product. For example, premium electric cars usually have two
electric motors for the front and rear wheels. As a result, the car has
Types of electric cars and the principle of
Type of electric car
changing to offer potential users different options. Currently the world is
increasingly familiar with the types of electric cars such as BEV, HEV, PHEV
and FCEV. Each type of electric car has a different way or principle of
operation. This article briefly discusses the definition or understanding,
types, types, habits and operating principles of electric cars circulating in
Indonesia and the world today.
The definition or definition of an electric
car is a vehicle that is powered wholly or partly by an engine that uses
electricity in a battery. The battery must be charged.
The first practical electric car was made
in the 1880’s. This car was very popular in the late 19th and early 20th
centuries. The development and innovation of the internal combustion engine
(ICE) and the mass production of cheaper gasoline-powered vehicles led to a
decline in the use of electric cars.
The development of energy storage
technology, especially battery technology, has recently re-popularized the use
of electric vehicles. Here’s how an electric car works – an overview
In general, electric cars work like this.
• When the car pedal is pressed, eg
• The controller extracts and regulates
electrical energy from the vehicle battery and inverter
• By setting the controller, the inverter
then sends a certain amount of electrical energy to the motor (depending on the
depth of pedal pressure).
• Electric traction motors convert electrical
energy into mechanical energy (rotation/rotation).
• Rotation of the engine rotor rotates the
gearbox, so the wheels turn and then the car moves.
An explanation of the principles or
workings of an electric car applies to the BEV type.
Type of electric car
There are 4 (four) types of electric cars.
The main designs are as follows:
• Battery electric vehicle (BEV)
• Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV)
• Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV)
• Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle (FCEV)
This type of BEV, which is also called
All-Electric Vehicle (AEV), is a vehicle that works entirely on battery
electricity. The BEV type does not have an internal combustion engine (ICE).
Electric power is stored in the battery. The battery is charged by connecting
to an external power supply.
BEV architecture and components
• Electric motor
• Control module (controller)
The working principle of the BEV electric
The working principle of the BEV electric
car is very simple:
• Power is converted to AC power from a DC
battery to start the motor
• The accelerator sends a signal to the
control module to regulate the vehicle speed by changing the frequency of the
AC supply from the inverter to the engine (if the car has a squirrel cage
• The motor engages and rotates the wheels
using the gears
• When the brakes are applied or the car
slows down, the engine becomes a generator, producing electricity which is
stored in the battery.
Example of a BEV electric car
Volkswagen e-Golf, Tesla Model 3, BMW i3,
Chevy Bolt, Chevy Spark, Nissan LEAF, Ford Focus Electric, Hyundai Ioniq, Karma
Revera, Kia Soul, Mitsubishi i-MiEV, Tesla X, Toyota Rav4.
Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV)
standard hybrid or parallel hybrid. The HEV type has two propulsion systems, an
internal combustion engine (ICE) and a traction motor. ICE can produce
energy from the combustion of fuel. This motor is powered by a battery.
gasoline engine and engine simultaneously crank the transmission to drive the
wheels. The difference between HEV type cars and BEV and PHEV cars is that HEV
car batteries are only charged by engine rotation, wheel movement or a
combination of both. This car does not have a charging port, so the battery
cannot be charged from outside the system, for example from the PLN electricity
HEV electric car type components
pack with controller and inverter
The working principle of the HEV electric
HEV electric car is as follows:
• The engine has a fuel tank like a normal
• HEV vehicle types have a battery to start
• Both engine and motor can rotate gears
• After braking, the engine becomes a
generator and charges the battery
An example of the type of HEV electric car
Honda Civic Hybrid, Toyota Prius Hybrid,
Honda Civic Hybrid, Toyota Camry Hybrid.
Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV)
internal combustion engine (ICE) and an electric traction motor. In terms of
technology, the working principle of the PHEV electric car is called a series
hybrid. PHEV type cars also provide fuel options. This type of electric car can
run on fossil energy sources (eg gasoline) or alternative sources (eg
biodiesel) and batteries. Unlike HEVs, this type of vehicle battery can be
charged from an external power source by connecting the external power source
to the vehicle input (charging port) on an electric vehicle charging station
A PHEV in general can be operated in at
least two modes, namely:
• All-electric mode, using only battery
power to propel the vehicle
• Hybrid mode where electricity and
gasoline are used together.
Some PHEV electric cars in Indonesia can
travel more than 70 miles on electricity alone. PHEV components
• Electric motor
• Gas tank
• Control Module
• Battery charger (if installed)
The principle of operation of the PHEV
The mode or principle of operation of a
PHEV electric car usually starts in “all-electric mode” and runs on
electric power until the battery is empty. Some models of this type of vehicle
may switch to hybrid mode when the vehicle speed on the highway is constant,
usually above 60 or 70 miles per hour. When the battery runs out, the machine
takes over. A PHEV car can also function as a conventional plug-in hybrid.
As well as being able to connect a PHEV car
battery to an external energy source, it can also be charged using an ICE
(internal combustion engine) cycle or regenerative braking. During braking, the
engine acts as a generator. The energy produced can also be used to charge the
power supply or battery.
The following is an example of the type of
PHEV electric car
Porsche Cayenne S E-Hybrid, Chevy Volt,
Chrysler Pacifica, Ford C-Max Energi, Ford Fusion Energi, Mercedes C350e,
Mercedes S550e, Mercedes GLE550e, Mini Cooper SE Countryman, Audi A3 E-Tron,
BMW 330e, BMW i8, BMW X5 xdrive40e, Fiat 500e, Hyundai Sonata, Kia Optima,
Porsche Panamera S E-Hybrid, Volvo XC90 T8.
Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle (FCEV)
The FCEV type or type of electric vehicle
is also known as a fuel cell vehicle (FCV) or a zero-emission vehicle. This
type of FCEV uses fuel cell technology to generate electricity. Electricity is
used to power the engine to move the vehicle. The working principle of the FCEV
type electric car is almost similar to the working principle of the BEV type
electric car. This type only has a system that converts chemical energy in the
fuel cell into electricity.
• Electric motor
• Fuel cell
• Hydrogen tank
• Battery with converter and controller